Surfing is an extreme year-round sport and one of the most popular water outdoor activities in the world. Since 2021, it has become an Olympic sport. The name comes from the words "surfboard" and "moving".

In surfing, you ride on a board on the big waves (swell). Then different types of boards are used for different types of surfing: from longboards about 3 meters long to small boards called handplane which are slightly larger than a palm. Also, surfing-like sports are popular. In cities and resorts, it is wakesurfing — riding on a small board behind a boat that creates a steady wave. Another type of surfing is riding on artificial flow-waves. These are engineering structures in which a wave pressure is created that imitates waves in open water. The movements of athletes on artificial waves and wakesurf are not quite the same as in real surfing, therefore they cannot be a full-fledged preparation before going to the ocean.

Surfing is usually practiced on the coast of the seas and oceans, but waves suitable for surfing are found on lakes and rivers. The most popular regions for surfing are Hawaii, Bali, and Australia, but also Peru, Ireland, and Great Britain. In particular, Hawaii is considered the birthplace of modern surfing. Waves suitable for surfing can also be on rivers and lakes, for example, on the Great Lakes in the USA and Canada, or on the Eisbach River in Germany.

Surfing is usually done in summer when the water is warm, but swell is more important, it's like the wind in yachting — without swell you just can't surf. Winter surfing in cold water is also gaining popularity: it is practiced in Scandinavia and in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia, as well as in warmer Japan.

The main pleasure of surfing is riding big waves. Surfing is also characterized by a close-knit community of locals. However, due to the fact that recently surfing has become a very popular leisure activity, it’s often crowded in the spots in these countries. Therefore, pay attention to lesser-known destinations. The disadvantages of surfing can also include the fact that to start it, it’s also desirable to be in good physical shape. Surfing is a very energy-intensive sport — most of the time in the water, the athlete rows on the lineup, but doesn’t stand on the board.

If you haven't tried this outdoor activity yet or want to improve your skills and get to the next level, this guide to kitesurfing from the team is just right for you.

Equipment and gear for surfing

Just as important as learning the right technique is ensuring you have the right gear. Surfing on the wrong type of board is a guaranteed way to ensure more wipeouts, and not having the right accompanying gear will make for a rather uncomfortable day at the beach. Here’s what you’ll need:

Surfboard (between $380 and $1,030)

While a shortboard (between 6 and 7 ft.) might look cooler, beginners should really be using a longboard. Longboards range from 8 to 12 feet, and the extra volume makes it easier to balance and paddle. As you progress, you can surf on shorter and shorter boards.

For some extra help at the beginning of your surfing career, look for a soft-top longboard. Soft top (foam) longboards are more forgiving, easier to paddle, and easier to ride. They’re also more durable and safer for beginners.

Surfboards can be expensive, but most popular surfing spots offer rentals right on the beach, so you don’t have to make a huge investment your first time out. An added bonus is that the people at the surf shop can help you pick out the best board for your experience level. If you’re not surfing on a beach with rentals, your other option is to pick up a used surfboard.

Wetsuit (between $100 and $500)

You’ll notice that the vast majority of surfers wear a wetsuit. The wetsuit keeps you warm and protects you against hypothermia in chilly conditions. It can also be more comfortable to surf in than a swimsuit. While they can be expensive, you should be able to rent one at the surf shop.

Surfboard leash ($20-$100)

A runaway board is dangerous not just for you, but also for everyone else surfing in the surrounding water. A surfboard leash ties you to your board, so that when you do wipeout, your surfboard stays right next to you. If you purchase a surfboard independently, you’ll have to pick up a leash, but if you’re renting, the rental will typically include the leash.

Surfboard wax ($10-$25)

How do you get the traction necessary to successfully stand on your board? How do you avoid slipping? Surfboard wax. Plus, you’ll look oh so cool applying it.

Earplugs ($10-$50)

Earplugs are not essential but a good investment, particularly if you plan on surfing in cold water. Surfing in cold water puts you at risk of surfer’s ear—when you grow extra bone across your ear canal. Wearing earplugs will help you avoid this unfortunate condition.

Travel bag ($60-$250)

Surfboards are delicate, sensitive pieces of equipment. If you decide to invest in one and plan on traveling with it, you’ll want to also invest in a good travel bag to prevent the surfboard from being damaged. However, before you put down a couple of hundred dollars for a new bag, search for a used one at a fraction of the cost.

Sunscreen ($2-$10)

A lot of surfing takes place in the water, but as any swimmer knows, that doesn’t protect you from the harsh rays of the sun. Neither does just wearing a wetsuit. That’s why you should get in the habit of applying and reapplying sunscreen any time you plan on catching some waves. In fact, one of the biggest mistakes beginner surfers make is not wearing sunscreen—a decision they very much regret when that sunburn sets in the next day.

Rash guards ($25-$100)

Rash guards provide much-needed protection against skin irritation. Even if you’re wearing a wetsuit, you can still experience irritation from where the wetsuit rubs against your skin. As the weather gets warmer, you may wish to surf sans wetsuit. However, this puts you at risk of chafing as you slide on and off the board. That’s because surf wax, while it adds traction, also attracts sand particles. A rash guard protects these particles from irritating your skin.

Seasons and best weather conditions

When you’re just starting out, finding the correct wave is crucial. Remember to have realistic expectations: you’re not going to be catching a six-foot wave after a lesson or two. A good rule of thumb is not attempting to surf in any wave that you wouldn’t swim through. As a beginner, look for rolling waves that break slowly into semi-shallow waters—waves that are about 1-2 feet in height.

One of the most common beginner mistakes is attempting to surf in waves that are just too big, which will not only be frustrating but also potentially dangerous. Don’t hesitate to ask the people at your local surf shop or local instructors for advice on where the best place is to catch your beginner waves. You can also look for the places where instructors conduct their beginner surf lesson.

Once you find a potential spot for surfing, be sure to take some time to get comfortable in the water. Go for a swim or just practice paddling. You never want to be in a situation where you wipeout and aren’t comfortable swimming back to shore.

As a beginner, an ideal day will be about 85 degrees Fahrenheit, with a water temperature of 73 degrees. Sunny, no clouds, and a little offshore wind. You can monitor the wind in real time on live wind map.

Of course, there are a lot of factors that determine the surfing condition, things like power, swell size, speed, direction, and tide. While you don’t need to know what all of these terms mean right away, you’ll want to get practice learning how to read a surf forecast. Talk with more experienced surfers in your area to learn about the conditions optimal for surfing and check the Windy. app for a look at real-time surf forecasts.

Learning surfing

Surfing is a very beautiful, but, let's be honest, somewhat challenging water sport. It requires an understanding of some specific skills and techniques before you go into the ocean or sea with a board for the first time. But if you take enough time to prepare on land, you can expect to have a more successful first try or session with a surfing coach in an open water. There are five major steps to learn surfing:

Learn to swim. No matter how experienced a surfer you are, you will wipeout out. And when you do, you may find yourself in hostile waters, struggling to stay afloat. That’s why knowing how to swim is a necessity when surfing.

Get into good surfing shape. Surfing is — first and foremost — a sport — and a physically demanding one at that. That means that one of the best ways to prepare for the water is to get into the proper shape on land. And that doesn’t mean just spending a day at your local swimming pool. Surfing requires a combination of balance, strength, and cardiovascular endurance.

Practice surfing by watching and asking. Do you know the saying that good writers are good readers? The same goes for surfing. Before stepping onto the board, take time studying other surfers in the water. All you need is a spot on the beach. Try to examine the surfers’ stance, how they stand up, how they’re turning.

Book your first surfing lesson. Theoretically, you could attempt to learn by reading more articles, watching videos, and/or talking to friends but that puts you at risk of picking up bad habits — habits that will have to be broken once you start to progress. So, now, when you're finally ready to head into the ocean, it’s time to book your first surfing lesson.

Stick with it and practice. How long does it take you to get good at surfing? There is no definite answer to this final question. It varies from person to person. You might be able to stand up and ride a small wave by the end of your lesson or it could take several weeks or even a month. Stick with it and be patient. Like any sport, the more you practice, the faster you’ll improve and the better you’ll be.

Read more about each of these steps in the blog.

Dangers of surfing and safety rules

Surfing, like any sport, is not without its risks. The most common safety risk is a blow to the head — either from your own surfboard when you wipe out or from hitting rocks or other protruding objects in the water. Being knocked unconscious puts you at risk of drowning. Another of the most common dangers is your surf leash becoming caught on underwater rocks or reefs, pulling you under.

Riptides are another drowning risk. These strong and narrow currents will pull you directly away from the shore. Most surfers who get caught in riptides tend to panic and quickly swim against the current, leaving them exhausted and unable to stay afloat.

For anyone who has ever watched Jaws, the fear of sharks is a big one. That being said, shark attacks against surfers are relatively rare and fatal attacks even more. Shark attacks usually occur because the shark has mistaken the surfer for its natural prey. These attacks are typically “hit-and-run” attacks: the shark makes a single small bite before swimming away and never returning.

Basic safety rules for surfers

Know your limits. While you may feel the urge to compete with more experienced surfers, focus on your personal comfort level. Choose medium-sized, gentle waves rather than powerful, tall waves.

Know where to surf. You want to avoid areas heavily populated by rocks. Choose beach breaks (waves that break over a sandy bottom) rather than reef breaks (waves that break at coral reefs). A wipeout at the former is much more forgiving than wipeouts at the latter. You also want to avoid areas obstructed by above ground objects, such as piers and pillars.

As a beginner, don’t surf anywhere where there isn’t a lifeguard. Lifeguards are vital resources should something bad happen while you’re out in the water. They’re also an invaluable source of advice about where it’s best to surf and what hazards you should avoid.

Pay attention to. Always be aware of your surroundings, and check for signs indicating potential dangers. Lifeguards will place different colored flags in the beach to warn beachgoers of any potential swimming or surfing hazards that may arise.

Understand the weather conditions. This is where being able to read a surf forecast comes in handy. Besides altering you to normal weather hazards — lightening, heavy winds, etc. — a surf forecast will give you more information about the tides. Tide changes are a good indicator of when you’ll be at the greatest risk of becoming tangled in a riptide.

Don't surf alone. Especially as a beginner, always have a buddy watching your back. If you’re knocked unconscious or pulled under, it’s important to have someone who can help bring you to safety. In addition, sharks are more likely to attack individuals rather than groups of people.

One of the other biggest dangers facing surfers is actually other surfers. Popular surf spots get crowded, particularly when the surfing conditions are good. This puts you at risk of collisions, conflicts with other surfers, and painful run-ins with the fins of another surfer’s board. That’s why it’s so important to observe surf etiquette at all times.

Common surfing mistakes

Will you make mistakes? Of course. That’s just a fact of life whenever learn a new skill. Just don’t let mistakes discourage you — use them as a learning experience. Here are 5 of the most common beginner surfer mistakes to watch out for from the get-go.

Going too big. It can never be said enough: be sure to choose the right wave. That means knowing your limits. If you constantly chase waves above your level, not only will you be frustrated, but you will put your safety at risk. Don’t ever be shy about talking to instructors or surf shop employees for advice on what the best waves are for your level.

Not being prepared. Whether you decided to surf sans rash guards or forgot to reapply sunscreen, chances are, you’ll come to regret those decisions, if not right away, then the next day. Do yourself a favor and always be prepared with the right equipment and gear any time you hit the water. A nasty sunburn or a painful rash is the fastest way to kill a post-surf high.

Not being aware of your surroundings. Always check for potential safety hazards before you paddle out, even if you have surfed at a location before. Remember, wave and weather conditions are constantly changing. Check for flags, signs, protruding objects, poles, rocky spots, etc. Take a few minutes to just get comfortable swimming in the water before grabbing your board. The more prepared you are, the safer and more enjoyable your experience will be.

Not paddling enough. Most beginner surfers want to stand up on the board as soon as they feel the wave begin to lift up their board. In actuality, that initial “lift” is your cue to begin paddling fast and hard for a few seconds. Only once your surfboard actually begins to slide down the wave should you stand up.

Incorrect stance. A lot of beginners place their feet incorrectly on the board when they stand up, flail their arms, lean too far back, or forget to bend their knees. Any of these mistakes will make you much more likely to wipeout. That’s why it’s important to practice the proper stance on dry land and take time to ask instructors or more experienced surfers for their feedback. Also a good idea? Practicing your pop-up on the beach, making sure you can effectively move from lying down on your board to standing upright in the correct stance.

So, what are you waiting for? The waves are calling.

Surfing etiquette

As in many other sports, surfing has its own etiquette, that is, unspoken rules of conduct on the water. However, it is in surfing, due to the peculiarities of the sport, namely the natural conditions for doing it (waves on the spot), to know and follow the etiquette is a must. So, there are a few basic rules:

Observe right of way. When the waves are good, competition for waves can be steep. Typically only one surfer will ride a particular wave. That’s why it’s important to learn proper “right of way”.  If more than one person is paddling up to a wave, the one closest to the peak—or furthest inside—gets wave priority. If two people are approaching the same wave but from different sides, each surfer has the right to ride the wave in his/her respective direction.

Popular beginner surf spots typically have less strict rules and more than one surfer is allowed to ride a particular wave. So, if you’re looking for more practice, your best bet is spot designated for beginners.

Don’t drop in. Arguably the most important rule to observe is not cutting in on another person’s wave. If another surfer has wave priority, it is unacceptable to try to steal the wave by paddling ahead and then taking off and riding the wave in front of him/her. Wait your turn.

Don’t snake. Snaking is when you paddle around another surfer, effectively creating an “S” shape, in an attempt to get into a position that gives you the right of way. In other words, it’s just another way of trying to cut the lineup.

Don’t hog the waves. While you may find yourself with the right of way time and time again, you should take a step back and allow other surfers on the beach a chance to ride.

Know where to paddle. Avoid trying to paddle up to the wave through the middle of the lineup. Paddle up on the outside, avoiding the wave breaks and those currently riding a wave. It’s also important not to let your paddling interfere with a surfer’s ride. Paddle behind, not in front, of other surfers.

Take care of the beach. Just like the ocean, the beach was meant to be shared. Everyone has a role to play in ensuring that it’s clean and surf friendly. So don’t litter and always pick up after yourself.

Apologize. Everyone makes mistakes, no matter how experienced they are. That’s ok. Just make sure to say you’re sorry if you do accidentally drop in or interfere with another surfer’s ride. A good surfing community is a respectful surfing community.

Grabbing a surfboard is like purchasing a ticket to another world. While there’s a lot to learn and numerous pitfalls and mistakes to avoid, most longtime surfers would agree: there’s no experience like it. So, if there’s one rule to remember,  it’s to have fun. If you’re not having fun, then you should probably be doing something else.

Read guides to 20+ other sports and outdoor activities on the site.


Text: team. Ivan Kuznetsov contributed to this guide

Cover photo: Sincerely Media / Pexels

Learn more about surfing in the

How to surf. Brief instructions to learning this sport

The guide on surf schools for beginners, intermediate, and pro sportsmen

How to choose a surf school or surf camp

How to read a surf forecast to get the best surfing experience

The collection of article about surfing

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